Understanding Hepatoblastoma: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Hepatoblastoma is a rare or uncommon form of liver cancer that primarily affects young children under the age of five, most frequently affecting those under the age of three. This fatal condition starts during fetal development in the cells that make up the liver and quickly spreads to other areas of the body if left untreated and proves as a deadly disease.

This guide will provide an in-depth overview of hepatoblastoma, including its causes, symptoms, and treatment options. It will also discuss the impact of the disease on patients and their families, as well as strategies for coping with the emotional and psychological effects of diagnosis and treatment. So let’s get started.

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Causes Of Hepatoblastoma

Researchers believe that a combination of genetic and environmental variables that may contribute to the formation of this malignancy account or cancer for the occurrence of this disorder, the exact causes of this condition are not yet fully known and identified. Some of the researched causes of this disorder:

Genetic mutations_ Hepatoblastoma risk is known to be increased by specific genetic mutations, such as those linked to Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

Premature birth_ Hepatoblastoma development is slightly more likely in premature infants.

Specific medical problems_ The chance of developing hepatoblastoma may be higher in children who have certain medical diseases, such as tyrosinemia or glycogen storage disease.

Chemical exposure_ Hepatoblastoma risk may be increased by exposure to several chemicals, such as pesticides and herbicides.

Very low weight at birth_ If a newborn child is underweight then there are changes to develop this disease.

Some genetic mutations have also been linked to hepatoblastoma, in addition to these risk factors. These mutations can impair healthy cell division and proliferation, which can result in liver tumor development. Changes in the CTNNB1, Wnt, and YAP1 genes are a few of the genetic alterations connected to hepatoblastoma. Understanding these risk factors and genetic mutations can help healthcare providers identify children who may be at a higher risk for this rare cancer.

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Symptoms Of Hepatoblastoma

Hepatoblastoma symptoms might change based on the child’s age, the size and location of the tumor, and other factors. Hepatoblastoma symptoms frequently include:

Abdominal Swelling Or Pain

This is one of the most common symptoms of hepatoblastoma. As the tumor grows, it can cause the abdomen to swell, and may also cause pain or discomfort, and a child who suffers from it feels frequent pain in the abdomen.

Loss Of Appetite And Weight Loss

Children with hepatoblastoma may experience a loss of appetite even child don’t want to eat their favorite dishes, which can lead to weight loss and malnutrition.

Nausea And Vomiting

These symptoms may occur as a result of the tumor pressing on the digestive system and eventually, it leads to vomiting or nausea.


A tumor blocking the bile ducts may cause this disorder, which results in the yellowing of the skin and eyes.


Weakness or exhaustion may be experienced by children with hepatoblastoma as a result of the tumor and its therapy.

In infants and young children, symptoms of hepatoblastoma may be more difficult to detect, as they may not be able to communicate or tell their discomfort. In addition to the symptoms listed above, parents may notice the following signs in their child:

Failure to thrive_ When a youngster does not develop or grow as predicted.

Difficulty feeding_ Babies with hepatoblastoma may have trouble eating or may refuse to do so.

Irritability_ Because of their discomfort, children with hepatoblastoma may become agitated or fussy.

Undiagnosed fever_ Hepatoblastoma may be present when there is no other explanation for the fever.

Parents should speak with a healthcare professional for a more thorough assessment if they see any of these symptoms in their child.

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Diagnosis Of Hepatoblastoma

Hepatoblastoma is normally diagnosed using a combination of:

Physical Examine

A physical examination is done by the doctor and your doctor also asks about the symptoms a person feels.

Serum Tumor Marker Test

This blood examination counts the quantities of specific chemicals that the body’s organs, tissues, or tumor cells release into the blood. When found in elevated amounts in the blood, certain chemicals are associated with particular forms of cancer. They are referred to as tumor markers. Children with liver cancer may have higher levels of the hormone beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) or the protein alpha-fetoprotein in their blood (AFP). Several non-cancerous illnesses, such as cirrhosis and hepatitis, as well as other malignancies, benign liver tumors, and other cancers, can also raise AFP levels.


Blood Tests

These exams could be used to assess liver function and search for tumor indicators like alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).

Imaging Tests

These exams, such as an ultrasound, a computed tomography (CT) scan, or an MRI, can help locate, measure, and determine the extent of the tumor.


CT Scan

A CT (computed tomography) scan is a medical imaging test that uses X-rays and computer technology to create detailed images of the inside of the body. Before CT scan all metal objects remove from the patient body and wears a gown. The patient lay down on the scanner and ask to remain still for clear images.



A biopsy is a procedure in which a small bit of liver tissue is removed and put under a microscope for analysis. This could support the hepatoblastoma diagnosis.



An ultrasound is a medical imaging test that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the inside of the body so a doctor can identify what’s going on in organs.


MRI Scan

An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan is a medical imaging test that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the inside of the body and is like a CT scan. The patient could require an injection of contrast material, depending on the type of MRI being performed, to aid improve the clarity of the pictures.


Genetic Testing

Through genetic testing, one may search for certain genetic mutations linked to hepatoblastoma.


The stage of cancer and whether it has spread to other body areas may be determined if additional testing is performed to confirm the diagnosis of hepatoblastoma. This data is used to forecast the child’s prognosis and to help influence therapy choices.

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Treatment Options For Hepatoblastoma

Hepatoblastoma has a range of treatment choices, and which one is chosen will depend on cancer’s stage and other personal considerations. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery are the three main hepatoblastoma treatments.

Surgery is frequently the initial course of action for hepatoblastoma since it enables medical professionals to get rid of as much of the tumor as feasible. If the tumor is extremely large or has migrated to other areas of the liver, a liver transplant may occasionally be required. Hepatoblastoma patients may also benefit from chemotherapy, which uses medications to kill cancer cells. In some circumstances, radiation therapy may also be employed, particularly if cancer has migrated outside the liver.

Stages of Treatment

Initial treatment_ This may involve surgery, chemotherapy, or a combination of both.

Follow-up treatment_ After initial treatment, patients may undergo additional chemotherapy or radiation therapy to help prevent cancer from returning.

Supportive care_ This may include pain management, nutritional support, and other therapies to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.


Hepatoblastoma Prognosis

The child’s age, the severity of the disease, and the response to treatment are some of the variables that affect the prognosis of hepatoblastoma, or the anticipated fate of the illness. Nonetheless, thanks to advancements in diagnosis and treatment, the outlook for hepatoblastoma has improved recently.

The likelihood of successful treatment and long-term survival is higher if the cancer is discovered early and has not spread outside of the liver. However, the prognosis is often worse if cancer has progressed to other bodily regions.

After treatment, the child will need regular follow-up appointments with their healthcare team to monitor for any signs of recurrence or long-term side effects of treatment.


Hepatoblastoma Cancer Survival Rate

The percentage of children with hepatoblastoma who survive the illness for some time after diagnosis varies based on several variables, including cancer’s stage and the child’s age. Hepatoblastoma survival rates have generally increased recently as a result of advancements in detection and treatment.

The overall five-year survival rate for kids with hepatoblastoma is roughly 80%, according to the American Cancer Society. This indicates that at least five years will pass after a child is diagnosed with hepatoblastoma in around 80% of cases. It’s vital to keep in mind that this is only an average and that individual characteristics can have a significant impact on survival rates.


How to avoid hepatoblastoma?

Avoiding hepatoblastoma involves reducing risk factors: ensure good prenatal care, avoid exposure to harmful chemicals, and maintain a healthy lifestyle. Genetic factors are unmodifiable and require medical monitoring.


Finally, it should be noted that hepatoblastoma is an uncommon kind of liver cancer that usually affects young children. Hepatoblastoma has an undetermined specific cause, however, some risk factors, like a family history of the condition, have been found. Hepatoblastoma symptoms might range, however, they may include abdominal pain or swelling, appetite loss, and weight loss.
The emotional and psychological effects of hepatoblastoma can be managed by patients and families with the help of a variety of tools and support systems in addition to medical care. Counseling, support groups, and neighborhood resources are a few examples of these.

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