Understanding Panlobular Emphysema: Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention (2023)

Panlobular emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that affects the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs, leading to their destruction and enlargement than the normal size. This type of emphysema is characterized by damage that is evenly distributed throughout the lungs, as opposed to other types of emphysema that affect only specific areas.

What Is Panlobular Emphysema ICD 10

In the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), ICD 10 code for Panlobular emphysema as J43.1. This code falls under the category of “Emphysema” and specifies the type of emphysema affecting the individual. The ICD-10 code J43.1 is used by healthcare providers to classify and report cases of Panlobular emphysema for purposes such as reimbursement, research, and monitoring of disease trends. It is important to note that the ICD-10 code should only be assigned by a qualified healthcare professional after a thorough clinical evaluation and diagnosis of the patient.

Anatomy And Physiology Of The Respiratory System

The exchange of gases between the body and the environment is carried out via the respiratory system. It comprises the lungs, airways, and supporting tissues and muscles. The pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles are the next set of airways after the nose and mouth. Millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, which are encircled by blood arteries and serve as the site of gas exchange, make up the lungs. When carbon dioxide from the blood is discharged into the air to be breathed, oxygen from the air is diffused into the blood.

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Mechanism Of Development Of Panlobular Emphysema

The development of Panlobular emphysema is primarily linked to cigarette smoking or alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Smoking causes inflammation and damage to the airways and alveoli, leading to the release of enzymes that break down the elastic fibers in the lung tissue. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic condition that results in the insufficient production of a protein that protects the lung tissue from the damaging effects of enzymes. This is all the mechanism or process of developing this disorder.

Lung Tissue Changes And Destruction

The entire respiratory lobule is affected by the broad lung tissue deterioration that characterizes Panlobular emphysema. As a result of the destruction of the alveolar walls, the air gaps grow larger and the surface area accessible for gas exchange decreases. It becomes challenging to fully exhale because the lungs lose their ability to rebound and become less elastic. As a result, the air gets trapped in the lungs, causing breathing difficulties and other COPD symptoms. Moreover, the loss of lung tissue can result in a reduction in capillaries, which affects the lungs’ capacity to supply oxygen to the body’s tissues.

Symptoms Of Panlobular Emphysema

The symptoms remain unnoticeable in starting. And this disorder increases over time and then a person experiences something wrong in the body. However, as the disease progresses, the following symptoms may become more apparent:


  1. Shortness of breath, especially during physical activity
  2. Wheezing
  3. Chronic cough, with or without phlegm
  4. Chest tightness or discomfort
  5. Fatigue or weakness
  6. Weight loss
  7. Bluish tint to the skin, lips, or fingernails (late-stage symptom)

Individuals with Panlobular emphysema may also experience exacerbations, or sudden worsening of symptoms, which can be triggered by respiratory infections, exposure to irritants or pollution, or changes in weather.

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Diagnosis Of Panlobular Emphysema

When a person feels these symptoms and gets medical attention now the time comes for diagnosis that what disease a patient has there are numerous methods to diagnose a disease like

Medical History

Medical history is the first step to diagnosing any disease the doctor may ask about your symptoms, smoking history, and how much time you spend in the environment which irritates the lungs. And also do a physical exam after getting answers to all these questions doctors will prescribe the best course for the patient.

Physical Examination

The healthcare provider or doctor will listen to the lungs with a stethoscope to detect abnormal sounds, such as wheezing or crackles, and may observe the patient’s breathing pattern it helps a lot of doctors to diagnose the health of the lungs.

Pulmonary function tests (PFTs)

PFTs are non-invasive tests that measure lung function, including the amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled, how quickly air can be exhaled, and how efficiently oxygen is transferred into the bloodstream. PFTs are used to assess the severity of lung disease and monitor its progression and how fast this disease spreads.

Imaging Tests

This test is used to identify the issue in various disorders. Imaging tests, such as computed tomography (CT) scans or chest X-rays, can reveal structural alterations in the lungs and assist differentiate between various types of emphysema.

Blood Tests

Alpha-1 antitrypsin levels can be measured using blood testing, which can also be used to rule out other potential lung disease causes.


In some conditions, a biopsy is also needed to check the severity of the disease.

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Panlobular Emphysema Treatment

There is no certain cure for this disorder but there is some treatment available that can slow down the progression of the disease and a person can live a normal life.

Quitting smoking

Smoking cessation or quitting smoking is the most important step in managing Panlobular emphysema. Quitting smoking can help slow the progression of the disease and improve overall lung function. If a person is not quit smoking his condition becomes severe and severe day by day.


Medications such as bronchodilators inhaled steroids, and antibiotics may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent exacerbations. It can slow down the process of spreading disease and maintain oxygen levels in the body.


Oxygen Therapy

Supplemental oxygen may be necessary to improve oxygen levels in the blood and relieve shortness of breath which is experienced by most people who have this disorder.

Pulmonary Rehabilitation

Pulmonary rehabilitation is a structured program that combines exercise, breathing techniques, and education to help improve lung function, reduce symptoms, and increase overall physical activity. Here a person has to do these things daily which have positive effects all over the body.


In rare cases, surgery may be recommended to remove damaged lung tissue or perform a lung transplant. Surgery is recommended only when Panlobular Emphysema already badly affects the lungs.

It is also important to track the condition of the lungs every week so a person can identify how medications and other procedures work and a doctor’s plan accordingly.

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Panlobular Emphysema Prognosis

Panlobular emphysema is a chronic disease that develops over time and affects the quality of life badly. Here are some factors that can affect the prognosis of individuals with Panlobular emphysema:


Older individuals or aged persons may experience a more rapid progression of the disease because their immune systems become weak.

Smoking History

Individuals with a history of smoking are at a higher risk of complications and more rapid disease progression.

Presence Of Comorbidities

The presence of other chronic conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, or obesity can affect prognosis.

Compliance With Treatment

The individual’s willingness and ability to comply with treatment and lifestyle modifications can impact prognosis.


Complications Of Panlobular Emphysema

Respiratory Infections

Those who have Panlobular emphysema are more likely to get respiratory infections, which can worsen the condition of their lungs and necessitate hospitalization.

Respiratory failure:

This potentially fatal condition may develop in severe cases of Panlobular emphysema.

Pulmonary Hypertension

A condition known as pulmonary hypertension causes excessive blood pressure in the lungs, which can cause heart failure and other consequences.

Life Expectancy In Panlobular Emphysema

The prognosis for people with Panlobular emphysema might change depending on the disease’s severity and how well it is treated. Those with the advanced disease typically have a bad prognosis and may have a shorter life expectancy. However, those who have Panlobular emphysema can enhance their quality of life, lessen symptoms, and halt the disease’s progression, which can lengthen their life expectancy, with the right treatment and lifestyle changes.


Prevention Of Panlobular Emphysema

Here are some precautions and measures one should follow to improve the quality of life. Preventing Panlobular emphysema involves taking steps to reduce the risk factors that can contribute to the development of the condition.

Quit Smoking

The most crucial step in preventing Panlobular emphysema is to stop smoking because it is the primary cause of the disease. It is never too late to stop smoking, and doing so can greatly lower your risk of getting Panlobular emphysema and other lung disorders linked to smoking.

Avoid Breathing In Lung Irritants

Breathing in lung irritants including dust, chemicals, and air pollution might raise your chance of getting lung disorders. People should take precautions to prevent or reduce exposure to these irritants, such as wearing protective equipment in specific job settings.

Adopt A Healthy Lifestyle

Eating well, keeping a healthy weight, and exercising frequently can all help to enhance lung function and lower the chance of developing lung conditions.

Get Regular Check-ups

Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help detect and manage any lung diseases early, which can help prevent them from progressing and causing further damage.


FAQS Section:

What is the new treatment for COPD 2023?

The new treatment for COPD in 2023 is ensifentrine, a dual inhibitor of PDE3 and PDE4, showing significant improvements in lung function and symptom reduction in clinical trials.

What is the treatment for panlobular emphysema?

Treatment for panlobular emphysema includes bronchodilators, corticosteroids, pulmonary rehabilitation, oxygen therapy, and in severe cases, lung volume reduction surgery or lung transplantation. Smoking cessation is crucial for management.



Panlobular Emphysema is a COPD that affects the air sacs in the lungs which enlarge their normal size. The ICD 10 code for this disorder is J43.1. Symptoms of this disease include shortness of breath, wheezing, chronic cough, weight loss, and a bluish tint to the skin. Diagnosis includes medical history, physical examination, Pulmonary function tests, CT scan, X-rays, etc. Treatment options available for this disorder are quitting smoking, medications, oxygen therapy, and surgery. Some precautions should also take to control the progression of the disease. By following medications and quitting smoking and adopting a good lifestyle one can continue a normal life.

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