Pulmonary vein stenosis is a rare disease which means it’s not common among people very few people face this condition. In this condition pulmonary veins, whose duty is to carry blood that is rich in oxygen from the lungs to the heart, become narrow and tight.
What Are The Types Of Pulmonary Vein Stenosis?
It can be divided into two main types for better understanding briefly describe both of these types below:
Congenital Pulmonary Vein Stenosis
In this type when the pulmonary veins do not develop properly before birth. This may be due to genetic factors or other unknown causes there is no certain reason figured out yet. Congenital pulmonary vein stenosis is more common in children than in adults.
Acquired Pulmonary Vein Stenosis
In this type Pulmonary vein stenosis can develop later in life a person not having this problem by birth. There are a lot of factors like inflammation and scarring that consider for the development of this type of Pulmonary vein stenosis.
Causes Of Pulmonary Vein Stenosis
The exact cause of this disorder is unknown but by research here are some causes which is list down:
Pulmonary vein stenosis can occur due to improper development of Pulmonary veins before birth this can occur due to genetic factors.
Due to inflammation in the veins Pulmonary vein becomes narrow or blocked and this lead to this disorder. Autoimmune illnesses or ailments like vasculitis may be to blame for this.
Some medical procedures also play role in developing this disease by narrowing veins such as lung transplant surgery or cardiac surgery, which can increase the risk of developing pulmonary vein stenosis.
Radiation therapy is done to cure a certain type of cancer but it can harm the veins and tighten them and leading to this condition.
There is also some other condition which also can be a reason for this disease like pulmonary hypertension or congenital heart disease.
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Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Symptoms
It’s very important to know about symptoms so one’s can identify that he or she has this disorder. But symptoms may vary from one person to another due to the level of disease and whether it is congenital or acquired
Shortness Of Breath
Difficulty in breathing during any physical activity like running playing and walking fast is a common sign of this disorder.
Feeling tired after taking rest according to body needs is another sign of this condition.
Pain in the chest during physical activity like exercise, cycling running also consider a symptom of this condition.
Another alarming symptom is prolonged coughing and also blood in the cough.
Bluish skin or lips
If someone has bluish skin or lips it also considers a sign of low oxygen levels in the body and it can be due to Pulmonary vein stenosis
An excessively fast heartbeat and palpitations are also a sign of this disease.
If someone feels swelling in the legs and feet it can also occur due to this disorder.
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Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Diagnosis
After discussing the symptoms of Pulmonary vein stenosis the steps come of diagnosis of this disorder. The steps include in diagnoses:
Medical history and physical examination
The doctor will ask about your past medical history or diseases and also ask about symptoms you feel after that do a physical examination.
This is a test that uses sound waves of the heart to create images of the heart and if there is any abnormality in the beating of the heart doctors identify it by this test.
In this technique, the catheter is injected into the blood vein to check blood pressure levels and measure blood flow. It also helps to identify if someone has this disorder or not.
Pulmonary Vein Angiography
In this procedure, a color injection is given in the pulmonary vein to detect any abnormalities shown in the visualization, and the doctor easily identifies the issue.
If all methods are not enough to identify the disorder then in some cases biopsy is also done in this procedure small tissue sample is taken from the veins and tests this tissue.
Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Treatments
There is numerous treatment available for this disease include:
The most common method for curing this disorder is medications. To treat symptoms, doctors may give medications like diuretics, anticoagulants, and blood pressure meds. But don’t try this medicine before taking advice from a doctor.
In some situations, medical professionals might enlarge or fix the damaged pulmonary veins using a catheter-based treatment.
Surgical interventions may be necessary in cases where catheter-based procedures are not effective. Surgery may involve removing or repairing the affected pulmonary veins.
A lung transplant may be required in extreme situations of pulmonary vein stenosis to replace the damaged lung tissue.
Radiation therapy may be used to treat pulmonary vein stenosis, which is brought on by scarring or other damage to the pulmonary veins.
The aim of treatment is to improve blood flow and enlarge and tighten veins so a person can continue their normal life.
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Lifestyle Changes To Manage Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Symptoms
In parallel with medications, lifestyle changes are also necessary for recovering fast.
Smoking can make pulmonary vein stenosis symptoms worse and raise the chance of consequences. Giving up smoking can enhance general health and lung function.
Stress can increase heart rate and blood pressure, worsening symptoms of pulmonary vein stenosis. Practicing stress-reduction techniques such as meditation or yoga can help manage stress and improve overall health.
Avoiding high altitudes
High altitudes can reduce oxygen levels in the blood, worsening symptoms of pulmonary vein stenosis. Avoiding high altitudes or using supplemental oxygen may be recommended.
Get Enough Rest
Fatigue is a common symptom of pulmonary vein stenosis, and getting enough rest can help manage this symptom. Aim for 7-8 hours of sleep each night.
Home Remedies To Relieve Symptoms
There are some home remedies that can help to manage the symptoms of this disorder
Gargling with warm salt water can help relieve throat irritation and coughing and you will feel comfortable in your throat eventually it helps to recover fast from Pulmonary vein stenosis.
Avoid things that can worsen this disease like smoking pollution and allergens.
Drinking plenty of water can help thin mucus and make it easier to cough up. Drinking water can have a positive impact on your health.
Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Life Expectancy
The life expectancy for individuals depends upon many factors like the health level of people how they use medicines their daily diet at much more. In some cases, pulmonary vein stenosis can be cured with medications, catheter-based procedures, or surgery, and a person is able to live a normal life or near-to-normal life.
However, in severe cases, where the condition is worst and diagnosed when it already damages the heart and lungs then, life expectancy may be shortened.
Pulmonary vein stenosis is a condition in which pulmonary veins are tightened than their normal size. Two types of this disorder are Congenital Pulmonary Vein Stenosis and Acquired Pulmonary Vein Stenosis. There are several causes of pulmonary vein stenosis inflammatory conditions, and medical procedures. And symptoms of this disease are fatigue, chest pain, bluish skin or lips, etc. Diagnosis of the disorder includes medical history, Caric Catheterization. Several treatment options are available according to patient needs. Lifestyle changes are also needed for better recovery.
Neonatal Hemodynamics Research Centre