Blood Pressure: Types, Symptoms & Treatment 2023

What Does Blood Pressure Mean?

The amount of blood pushing against the artery walls is measured through blood pressure. An average adult’s blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. One of the most important physiological factors that affect a person’s general health is blood pressure.

A healthy lifestyle depends on maintaining a healthy blood pressure level. Some of the main causes of high blood pressure are stress, an unhealthy diet, and a poor diet. A healthy blood pressure level can be maintained with regular exercise, a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and stress-management measures.

Blood Pressure: Types, Symptoms & Treatment 2023

In this blog, we will explore various aspects of blood pressure including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management. We’ll also explore some of the newest reports and developments in the study of high blood pressure and its management. This blog is a good resource for anyone interested in learning more about blood pressure, whether you’re trying to control it or are just curious about this important physiological parameter. In this article, we’ll talk about:

How does blood pressure work?

The force that blood applies to the artery walls as it is pumped by the heart is known as blood pressure. Systolic and diastolic pressure are two numbers that are used to express the pressure, which is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). It is expressed as two numbers – systolic and diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure is the higher number and represents the force of blood when the heart beats, while diastolic pressure is the lower number and represents the force between beats when the heart is at rest.

For the body to operate properly, blood pressure must be maintained, which is a dynamic and complex system that is controlled by several factors.

Types of blood pressure:

A blood pressure measurement measures how forcefully blood flows against artery walls. It’s an important indicator of cardiovascular health and is used to diagnose conditions such as hypertension (high blood pressure) and hypotension (low blood pressure). Based on the systolic and diastolic measurements, multiple blood pressure groups exist.

Normal Blood Pressure:

The phrase “Normal Blood Pressure” refers to a person’s ideal blood pressure range. This is considered normal is when systolic blood pressure is below 120 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure is below 80 mmHg.

A person who has normal blood pressure is less likely to suffer from cardiovascular conditions like a heart attack or a stroke. It’s important to note that normal blood pressure can vary based on age, gender, and overall health. For example, a blood pressure reading of 115/75 mmHg may be considered normal for a young and healthy adult but may be high for an elderly person.

To monitor blood pressure and spot any abnormalities, it’s also essential to visit a doctor regularly.


Prehypertension is the name for high blood pressure that is not yet severe enough to be categorized as hypertension (high blood pressure). A systolic blood pressure value of 120-139 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure reading of 80-89 mmHg is considered to be prehypertension.

Prehypertensive people are more likely to develop hypertension and related health issues such as heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure. Making lifestyle adjustments is essential for individuals with prehypertension to lower their blood pressure and lessen their risk of developing hypertension.

In conclusion, prehypertension is a step to hypertension and the health issues that go along with it.

High blood pressure(Hypertension):

High blood pressure, sometimes referred to as hypertension, is a condition where the blood pressure against the artery walls is high. Over time, this can harm blood vessels and raise the risk of many illnesses, such as heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, and eye loss. This is when systolic blood pressure is 160 mmHg or higher or diastolic blood pressure is 100 mmHg or higher.

Blood Pressure: Types, Symptoms & Treatment 2023

In most cases, high blood pressure is symptomless, and the only way to know if you have it is to measure your blood pressure.

Low blood pressure(Hypotension):

Hypotension, another name for low blood pressure, is a condition when the blood pressure in the arteries is lower than usual. In general, low blood pressure is characterized by a systolic pressure of 90 mm Hg or less and/or a diastolic pressure of 60 mm Hg or less. A healthy blood pressure reading is typically about 120/80 mm Hg.

Blood Pressure: Types, Symptoms & Treatment 2023

Additionally, continuously lower readings over time can represent low blood pressure.

In conclusion, knowing the many types and classifications of blood pressure can help in maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system. Making lifestyle adjustments and routine blood pressure checks can help prevent and control high blood pressure. If you have any concerns about your blood pressure, it is best to consult with a healthcare provider.

Different Factors Causing High Blood Pressure:

It is very important to know which factors affect blood pressure to prevent this disease. The following are some of the main causes of high blood pressure or hypertension:

Unhealthy diet:
High blood pressure can be a result of a poor diet full of packaged foods, harmful fats, and salt. Consuming too much salt can cause the body to store water, raising blood volume and blood pressure.

Lack of physical activity:
Screen time raises the risk of hypertension and other health issues. Regular physical activity can help in maintaining a healthy blood pressure level by strengthening the heart and improving blood circulation.

Smoking significantly raises the risk of developing high blood pressure and other health issues. The blood arteries can be harmed by tobacco’s toxins, which can also raise blood pressure.

Stress can affect blood pressure in several ways. Blood arteries may narrow, the heart may beat more quickly, and the production of stress hormones may rise, all of which may raise blood pressure.

Using alcohol excessively:
Regular and excessive alcohol consumption can lead to increased blood pressure and other health problems. Alcohol can also interfere with the effectiveness of blood pressure medication.

Additionally, high blood pressure is a genetic tendency that can be transmitted through family members.

Weight gain, particularly around the waist, puts more strain on the heart and can raise blood pressure levels.

As people age, their blood vessels become less flexible and the heart has to pump harder to circulate blood, leading to elevated blood pressure levels.

Underlying Health Conditions:
High blood pressure can also be caused by medical problems such as kidney disease, sleep difficulties, and hormone abnormalities.

In addition to the above factors, age, and gender can also affect blood pressure.  Blood pressure rises as a result of the heart having to work harder to pump blood as people age because the blood arteries become less flexible. Blood pressure levels in women can be impacted by hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy, menopause, and menstruation.

Different Factors Causing Low Blood Pressure:

The main causes of low blood pressure or hypotension include the following.

Dehydration can result in a decrease in blood volume and low blood pressure.

Certain drugs, including diuretics, blood pressure pills, and antidepressants, can lower blood pressure.

Due to hormonal changes and an increase in blood volume, low blood pressure is frequently experienced during pregnancy.

Endocrine disorders:
Endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and diabetes can cause low blood pressure.

Blood loss:
Blood loss, such as from injury or surgery, can cause a decrease in blood pressure.

Heart problems:
Heart problems, such as heart failure or an abnormal heart rhythm, can cause low blood pressure.

Neurological conditions:
Neurological conditions, such as Parkinson’s disease, can cause low blood pressure.

Symptoms of pre-hypertension and high blood pressure:

However, high blood pressure usually develops gradually, and the first signs may not be apparent. Because of this, hypertension is frequently called the “silent killer.”

Despite the lack of noticeable symptoms, high blood pressure can cause several warning signs that indicate the need for immediate medical attention. Typical symptoms of high blood pressure include the following:

Dizziness and lightheadedness:
High blood pressure can affect the blood flow to the brain and cause dizziness and lightheadedness. This can also lead to fainting spells in severe cases.

High blood pressure patients may commonly develop headaches, particularly at the back of the head. Headaches may result from the enlarged blood vessels brought on by high blood pressure.

Blurred Vision:
Vision blackness is a result of high blood pressure harming the blood vessels in the eyes. Additionally, this raises the chance of developing eye conditions like retinopathy and glaucoma.

Chest Pain:
High blood pressure can cause chest pain and tightness as it increases the workload of the heart. Chest pain can be a warning sign of a heart attack and should be taken seriously.

Shortness of breath:
High blood pressure can make it difficult for the heart to pump blood effectively and cause shortness of breath, especially during physical activity.

Blood Pressure: Types, Symptoms & Treatment 2023

Nausea and vomiting:
High blood pressure can affect the digestive system’s blood flow, which can result in nausea and vomiting.

Due to the increased burden on the heart in people with high blood pressure, they could feel tired and sleepy.

Blood in the urine:
Blood in the urine might result from weakening and bleeding kidney blood vessels caused by high blood pressure.

As a result, high blood pressure is a dangerous condition that can result in various symptoms and warning signals. If any of these symptoms are present, it’s critical to get medical assistance.

Symptoms of low blood pressure:

Low blood pressure isn’t usually a problem, it can induce symptoms including exhaustion, dizziness, and fainting. The following are some results of observations of low blood pressure:

Shallow, rapid breathing:
Rapid, shallow breathing can be a symptom of low blood pressure, as the body tries to compensate for the decrease in blood pressure by increasing the rate of breathing.

Low blood pressure can confuse because the brain may not be getting enough blood and oxygen.

People who have extremely low blood pressure may experience fainting or lose consciousness.

Because the body is not getting enough blood and oxygen to sustain its usual processes, low blood pressure can make you feel weak and tired.

It’s important to note that not everyone with low blood pressure will experience symptoms. In some cases, low blood pressure may only be detected during a routine check-up with a healthcare provider.

How to Measure Blood Pressure?:

Blood pressure diagnosis is an important step in treating and monitoring this critical health indicator. A sphygmomanometer, which consists of an inflatable cuff and a gauge that shows the pressure readings, is used to measure blood pressure.

Blood Pressure: Types, Symptoms & Treatment 2023

There are many places where blood pressure can be checked, including at home, in a doctor’s office or a hospital. The procedures for taking a blood pressure reading are as follows:

Preparation: The individual should be seated and relaxed, with their arm supported at heart level. Avoiding physical activity, caffeine, and smoking for at least 30 minutes before measuring blood pressure is recommended.

Placement of the cuff:
The cuff is wrapped around the upper arm, about 1 inch above the elbow bend. To get accurate readings, the cuff should be snug but not too tight.

The cuff is inflated using a manual or automatic pump until the pressure in the cuff is high enough to occlude (block) the flow of blood in the artery.

A stethoscope is placed over the brachial artery (located in the bend of the elbow) and the healthcare provider listens for the first sounds of blood flow, known as systolic pressure. The pressure in the cuff is gradually released and the healthcare provider listens for the sounds to disappear, which is the diastolic pressure.

The systolic and diastolic pressures are recorded and the blood pressure is expressed as the systolic pressure over the diastolic pressure, such as 120/80 mmHg. pressure.

Additionally, BP should be measured in both arms to ensure accuracy, as there can be slight differences between the readings in each arm. Additionally, blood pressure should be measured several times to confirm the results, as blood pressure can fluctuate from moment to moment.

Available Treatment Options(Remedies and medications):

The good news is that several remedies and lifestyle modifications can help regulate blood pressure, here are some tips:

Exercise regularly:
Regular physical activity, such as walking, cycling, or swimming, can help lower blood pressure and improve overall cardiovascular health. Make sure you exercise at least 30 minutes a day at a moderate intensity.

Maintain a healthy weight:
Obesity and overweight can increase the risk of high blood pressure. Maintaining a healthy weight through a combination of diet and exercise can help control blood pressure.

Limit alcohol consumption:
High blood pressure can be caused by excessive alcohol consumption. Limiting alcohol consumption to no more than one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men can help lower blood pressure.

Follow a healthy diet plan:
A diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products and low in sodium, saturated fat, and added sugars can help lower blood pressure. The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet is a good example of a heart-healthy eating plan.

Stop smoking:
Smoking is a major risk factor for high blood pressure and many other health problems. Quitting smoking can help lower blood pressure and improve overall health.

Limit sodium intake:
Consuming too much sodium might raise blood pressure. Keeping your sodium intake in check can help with blood pressure management. Try to limit your daily sodium intake to 2,300 milligrams or less.

Eat small frequent meals:
Large meals can lower blood pressure, particularly for those who already have low blood pressure. Small, frequent meals can support the maintenance of appropriate blood pressure levels throughout the day.

Increase fluid intake:
Low blood pressure can be caused by dehydration. Water in particular should be consumed in large quantities to maintain appropriate blood pressure levels.

Wear compression stockings:
Compression stockings should be worn to help with blood flow and prevent low blood pressure.

As a result, living a healthy lifestyle that includes regular exercise, a nutritious diet, maintaining a healthy weight, quitting smoking, managing stress, consuming less sodium and more fluids, eating frequently and in small amounts, and wearing compression stockings can help manage both low and high blood pressure.


It’s essential to seek medical attention if a person hasn’t experienced any improvement after trying the solutions which are described above. Medications are a common treatment option for both high and low blood pressure. Here is a list of some common medications used to manage blood pressure:

ACE inhibitors:
They work by blocking the production of a hormone called angiotensin II, which can cause blood vessels to narrow and increase blood pressure.

Calcium channel blockers:
Another type of medicine used to treat high blood pressure is calcium channel blockers. They function by relaxing the blood arteries, facilitating easier blood flow, and lowering blood pressure.

Also referred to as “water pills,” diuretics aid in the elimination of extra salt and water from the body, which lowers blood pressure.

Beta-blockers are often used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, and heart attacks. They work by slowing down the heart rate and reducing the workload on the heart.

Adrenergic agonists:
Adrenergic agonists are medications used to treat low blood pressure. They work by increasing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, which helps to raise blood pressure.

It’s important to note that these medications have side effects, and some medications may interact with each other or with other medications you may be taking. Additionally, not all medications work for everyone, so it’s important to work closely with your healthcare provider to find the best treatment option for you.

Where to go for immediate help:

It’s important to seek medical assistance right away if you or someone you know experiences a sudden and significant change in blood pressure. Following are some actions you can take in an emergency:

Call 911 or your local emergency services: If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of a heart attack, stroke, or other serious condition, calling emergency services is the quickest and safest way to get help.

Go to the emergency room or hospital closest to you: If you or someone you know is experiencing sudden changes in blood pressure, chest pain, shortness of breath, or other symptoms, it’s important to go to the nearest hospital or emergency room for evaluation and treatment.

Contact your healthcare provider: If you have a regular healthcare provider, you can contact them to seek medical advice and direction. They may be able to guide the best course of action for your particular situation.

It’s important to seek medical attention as soon as possible if you or someone you know is experiencing sudden and significant changes in blood pressure. With prompt treatment and care, many people can manage their blood pressure and reduce their risk of serious complications.


Q. Are blood pressure apps accurate?
A. Blood pressure apps can be convenient for monitoring your blood pressure at home, but the accuracy of these apps can vary. While some apps may provide relatively accurate readings, others may not be as reliable.

Q. Are blood pressure medicines safe?
A. Yes, blood pressure medications are generally considered safe. However, it is important to consult your doctor before starting any medication and to follow the instructions for taking it as prescribed.

Q. Can blood pressure affect vision?
A. Yes, high blood pressure can affect your vision. This is because when blood pressure is too high, the increased pressure on the walls of the blood vessels can cause them to become damaged. This damage can lead to reduced blood flow to the eyes, which can cause vision problems such as blurry vision, floaters, and even blindness in extreme cases.

Q. What blood pressure is too high?
A. Blood pressure is considered too high when it is consistently above 140/90 mmHg. When your blood pressure is constantly at or above this level, it is important to seek medical attention.

Q. Can blood pressure cause headaches?
A. Yes, high blood pressure can cause headaches. The increased pressure on the walls of your blood vessels can cause them to become damaged, leading to reduced blood flow and tension in the head, resulting in an uncomfortable headache.


In conclusion, blood pressure is an important aspect of our health that requires regular monitoring and management. Understanding the different types of blood pressure, such as normal blood pressure, pre-hypertension, high blood pressure, and low blood pressure, as well as the causes and symptoms of each, is crucial for maintaining good health.

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